From wheat to flour
The grain of wheat is composed of:
- bran: the protective shell of the grain;
- egg white: the heart of the grain, rich in starch and gluten;
- of the germ.
When the whole grain is ground, a wholemeal flour with unmatched nutritional properties is obtained. But this flour turns rancid quickly due to the fat in the germ.
Wholemeal flour contains the bran and egg white of the grain. It is a brown colored flour, rich in fiber and vitamins. But being low in gluten, it is refined to improve its properties for baking.
The result is white flour (or flower flour), which contains only ground egg white. It is white, not very nutritious, but suitable for many modern recipes.
In France, the types of flour are classified according to their degree of refinement:
- T150: integral;
- T110: complete;
- T80: semi-complete (or double);
- T55: classic;
- T45: white or flower.
When to choose wholemeal flour?
Wholemeal flour is nutritious and tasty. It is suitable for people concerned about their health, but also for rustic recipes such as homemade bread, pancakes with cereals or sweet and savory pies.
Since it contains little gluten, it gives a pasta with little cohesion and elasticity. They are therefore reserved for shortbread, crumble or compact breads. It is easily used in recipes with a high moisture content such as pancakes, soft cakes, pies, etc.
When to choose white flour?
White flour has a neutral taste and a pale color which makes it ideal for making recipes with delicate flavors. It is used in particular in cooking or to thicken preparations.
The whiter the flour, the more gluten and starch it contains. It is therefore particularly suitable for making leavened doughs (puff pastry, brioche, pizza dough, etc.) and elastic (choux pastry, puff pastry, etc.).